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READ THESE ARTICLES# Meaning of *degree of freedom* in English:

## degree of freedom

### noun

1Each of a number of independently variable factors affecting the range of states in which a system may exist, in particular any of the directions in which independent motion can occur.

*‘Since rigid vibration is assumed, only a single degree of freedom exists, and structural relations within the organ of Corti should remain static during motion.’**‘Figure 8 shows the mathematical model of the temporary barrier system with the kinematic degrees of freedom.’**‘The explanation of this feature is that the model has more parameters than the degree of freedom of the system.’**‘Most of those theories simplified the structure of the cochlear partition and limited the degrees of freedom of its motion to capture the dominant modes of vibration.’**‘This fact makes the study of the vibrational dynamics of proteins particularly relevant because vibrational dynamics reflect thermal motions of the mechanical degrees of freedom.’**‘But the ability to exploit the spin degree of freedom in semiconductors promises new logic devices with enhanced functionality, higher speeds and reduced power consumption.’**‘An independent degree of freedom would simply multiply the number of microstates in each macrostate by a constant - which would raise the entropy of each macrostate by a constant.’**‘Therefore, the number of independent variables would be limited to two because of the degrees of freedom in the regression model.’**‘The resulting theory, which is called Matrix theory, is an exact and complete quantum theory that describes the microscopic degrees of freedom of M-theory.’**‘These degrees of freedom (local dynamics) represent possible large amplitude motions of the rigid monomers.’**‘It is also found from this study that the ground frequency response function measured by falling plate test is similar to that of vibration of a single degree of freedom with damping.’**‘The most significant contributions derive from the conformational degrees of freedom of the chain, its vibrational modes, and the hydration of the chemical groups.’**‘In these cases, water is confined and its rotational degrees of freedom are particularly influenced by interaction with the channel wall.’**‘Composition within the model is treated as an extended degree of freedom with its own governing equation of motion, the CH equation.’**‘The motion of the rotor is clearly the slowest degree of freedom.’**‘The wonderful thing about soft robotics is that it's infinitely adaptable, unlike the few degrees of freedom of rigid robots.’**‘Similarly, in a ski simulator experiment, the amplitude of articular movements grew during learning, testifying to this progressive release of the degrees of freedom.’*

- 1.1Chemistry Each of a number of independent factors required to specify a system at equilibrium.
*‘This may be explained by an increasing degree of freedom of the side chains of the aromatic amino acids.’**‘This is very important for folding simulation because the degrees of freedom of a protein molecule are very large and there are many local minima in the folding path.’**‘For an intermolecular disulfide bond within a beta-structure, segmental flexibility is less important because of the higher degree of freedom of the system of two separate molecules.’**‘Finally, in the particular case of CpMV, pressure has a dramatic effect on crystal order because it controls the degree of freedom of particles in the lattice.’**‘With protein-protein complexation, the larger interaction surface leads to a more substantial reduction of the external entropy, particularly for the rotational degrees of freedom.’**‘These total 35 effects, equal to the degrees of freedom among the 36 genotype means.’*

- 1.2Statistics The number of independent values or quantities which can be assigned to a statistical distribution.
*‘As a consequence, covariance matrices of the coordinate data are not of full rank, and the degrees of freedom for some statistical tests need to be adjusted.’**‘Even though in geometry 2 points define a line, empirical studies require at least 3 points to add an additional degree of freedom for statistical computations.’**‘The tabulated P value was calculated for every test statistic, using an F distribution with the appropriate degrees of freedom.’**‘It should be noted that the larger the sample size, the larger the chi-square value relative to the degrees of freedom.’**‘A chi-square value close to the degrees of freedom indicates that the hypothesized model fits the sample data well.’**‘Exploiting strategic degrees of freedom requires defining the strategic degrees of freedom which affect the outcome to the customer and which are within the control of the provider.’*

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