1A country in North America, with extensive coastlines on the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean, bordered by the US to the north; population 127,000,000 (estimated 2015); official language, Spanish; capital, Mexico City.
- 1.1A state of central Mexico, to the west of Mexico City; capital, Toluca de Lerdo.
The centre of both Mayan and Aztec civilizations, Mexico was conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the early 16th century. It remained under Spanish rule until independence was achieved in 1821; a republic was established three years later. Texas rebelled and broke away in 1836, while all the remaining territory north of the Rio Grande was lost to the US in the Mexican War of 1846–8