Meaning of topographical in English:


Pronunciation /ˌtɒpəˈɡrafɪkəl/


  • 1Relating to the arrangement or accurate representation of the physical features of an area.

    ‘the topographical features of the river valley’
    • ‘The Celts, who came to this corner of the land about 300 B.C. were probably the first to give names to the topographical features of the area.’
    • ‘The province is also developing new nutrient management zones based on soil classification and topographical features to identify areas more vulnerable to nutrient loss to ground and surface water.’
    • ‘Geographically accurate topographical maps with close contours to show the drainage pattern at micro level are not available.’
    • ‘Although located in the ‘inner’ space of the city, their orientation and design exploits topographical or geographical features of the site in order to preserve the sense of isolation associated with sanctuaries outside the walls.’
    • ‘Each regional section has a brief introduction to set the scene and pick out distinctive geographical and topographical features.’
    • ‘Each walk description comes with technical details, walk time, height gained, distance and OS Map, as well as a sketch map showing the main topographical features and a photograph to inspire and guide.’
    • ‘Differences between these groups and their topographical and demographical features do exist, but they are insignificant for the scope of this paper.’
    • ‘The building would have no relationship with existing development, the townscape or topographical features, principally the River Moy.’
    • ‘Streets were named according to topographical features, occupations, and after famous persons or trades.’
    • ‘With the Geostar we survey on-the-fly on 100-foot intervals, so we create a more accurate topographical map.’
    • ‘The 1991 Statement of Management empowered the Park Service to preserve ‘important topographical features of the battlefield.’’
    • ‘That's because, he explained, even the best maps of Mars don't display all the topographical features and ‘the images we get back don't always match up.’’
    • ‘The geoid (the surface of equal gravitational potential of a hypothetical ocean at rest) serves as the classical reference for all topographical features.’
    • ‘The bulk consists of lists of places with longitude and latitude, with brief descriptions of important topographical features.’
    • ‘They display many juvenile topographical features, such as straight mountain fronts and deep, steep-walled canyons that probably reflect active tectonism resulting in mountain uplift.’
    • ‘Or imagine sitting atop a perfectly cone-shaped mountain, and suppose the mountain is the only topographical feature in the world.’
    • ‘This river valley was evidently formed by the collapse of a large cave system, creating over 23 acres of unique topographical features.’
    • ‘Birds may use celestial bodies or the Earth's magnetic field to steer their way but they also depend on major topographical features to aid in navigation.’
    • ‘Second, before engaging the enemy, rivers, mountains, and other topographical features must be used to gain added leverage.’
    • ‘It also helped that he knew this route and its every topographical feature, perhaps well enough to not need a clicker, to amble along deafly.’
    geographical, topographical, zonal, territorial, topical
    1. 1.1(of a work of art or an artist) dealing with or depicting landscapes or other areas in a realistic and detailed manner.
      ‘he was one of the most faithful topographical artists to paint the lake’
      • ‘His son Pierre-Antoine the younger painted landscapes and topographical works in his father's manner.’
      • ‘Much of the best of his later work was mildly topographical, inspired by his love of travel; it records journeys to Scotland, along the river Duddon, to the Continent, etc.’
      • ‘For fourteen years I chaired the Works of Art Committee and sought to add to our collection of historical statues, busts and portraits, and topographical works.’
      • ‘Religious, philosophical, and topographical works were published in large numbers, though eventually overtaken in popularity by the novel.’
      • ‘Over the last few months, the artist has produced topographical views of Richmond upon Thames.’
      • ‘It is certainly true, with reference to paintings like The Little Street or View of Delft, that a topographical artist cannot change the buildings which are in front of him.’
      • ‘Lawrence's painting is a topographical landscape; Morse's is a history painting.’
      • ‘In Britain in the last quarter of the eighteenth century a school of watercolor landscape painting had blossomed that encouraged strong public demand for finely printed landscape and topographical views.’
      • ‘In the top right corner of the screen, a circular display has been implemented, depicting the topographical nature of the immediate environment surrounding the player.’
      • ‘This month the City of Johannesburg's mapping and survey department completed a detailed topographical survey, consisting of 7 500 readings.’
      • ‘By comparison, eighteenth-century painters are more hackneyed, whether producing ‘classical’ landscapes or topographical views.’
      • ‘Innovative new works created from bone fragments depict topographical maps of the sites of important battlefields in the history of South Africa.’
      • ‘At first glance, Looking East from Denny Hill is merely a topographical landscape.’
      • ‘The wallpaper depicts five topographical views of North America: Boston Harbor, Niagara Falls, West Point, New York Bay, and the Natural Bridge of Virginia.’
      • ‘He pointed out that the discovery also showed how ancient artists drew accurate topographical maps of the Horus Road, which stretched from Egypt to Palestine.’
      • ‘He went on to paint Dutch scenes as if they were further topographical reveries in an Italian landscape, although with cowmen instead of goatherds among the weirs and ivy-dripping ruins, as in The Ford.’
      • ‘Absolutely true to nature, it transcends topographical detail to attain a visual poetry that invites contemplation, self-reflection, and spiritual enlightenment.’
      • ‘Turner's use of watercolour in his travel sketches facilitated the emergence of his landscape studies, these early works of topographical watercolour allowed him to develop his innovative handling of the medium.’
      • ‘Although the artist seems to have had a primarily topographical intent, the drawing conveys a red feeling for the dramatic beauty of Lake George, while softening the effect of the wilderness by including signs of human activity.’
      • ‘Instead, he finds a scroll of paper and begins to draw, quite successfully, the houses and topographical features of Steerborough.’
  • 2Anatomy Biology
    Relating to or representing the physical distribution of parts or features on the surface of or within an organ or organism.

    ‘a topographical analysis of neuronal loss in Alzheimer's patients’
    • ‘There was no topographical relation of inflammatory atrophy with either HGPIN or HC.’
    • ‘A striking finding was a topographical relation of focal inflammation to sclerotic atrophy in areas with erosion of the epithelium.’
    • ‘Neither a topographical relation nor a morphologic transition was seen between prostatic atrophy and histologic carcinoma or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia.’
    • ‘The most studied topographical projection is that of the optic nerve from the retina into the brain.’
    • ‘One strength of the illustrations is to place a topographical drawing beside a sub-surface anatomic diagram which gives clear definition and understanding of the underlying abnormalities.’
    • ‘There was no topographical relationship between AAH and VMGH, nor was there any direct continuity between these 2 lesions.’
    • ‘The technique of percutaneous RF chordotomy is based on the topographical arrangement of the spinothalamic tract within the spinal cord.’
    • ‘The topographical relations of ATP distribution and histological pattern were analysed.’
    • ‘Shifts in topographical distribution were identified statistically by a significant state by scalp site interaction.’
    • ‘These topographical patterns reportedly form within seconds of cell contact.’
    • ‘Prediction of fluid shear force distribution on the endothelial surface has been computed from topographical maps measured by atomic force microscopy.’
    • ‘In many cases, the two combine to cancel one another (bottom right), so corrective surgery based on topographical measurements of corneal aberrations is not optimum.’
    • ‘In this way they divided the retinal cells into three topographical regions or zones: the vitreous zone (vitreous body of other authors), the pigmented zone, and the nuclear zone.’
    • ‘Accordingly, we have used AFM to examine the temperature-dependent topographical characteristics of membrane domains in DMPC / DSPC multibilayers.’
    • ‘The regulation of cell integrin receptors involves modulation of membrane expression, shift between different affinity states, and topographical redistribution on the cell membrane.’
    • ‘These tests can be summarized as follows: Similarity: Each homologue must have the same 1: 1 topographical relationship with other structures.’
    • ‘Banding also appears in topographical atomic force microscope images of hydrated, native fibrils.’
    • ‘We attempted to assess the specific consequences of topographical changes by selective manipulation of this parameter with neutral K20 antiintegrin antibody.’
    • ‘They presented a methodology to analyze AFM force curves on lipid bilayers that correlated with topographical features in the AFM images.’
    • ‘They have shown that cells align themselves with topographical features such as parallel grooves etched into a biomaterial surface.’