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- The reaction with carbonates gives the nitrate salt, water, and carbon dioxide.
- In natural water systems, many common minerals are formed by anion substitution-precipitation reactions, among them carbonates, phosphates, and the sulfate-containing rocks.
- Pore waters also sensitively record the occurrence of other reactions, such as the dissolution, precipitation, and recrystallization of phosphates, carbonates, and sulphides, during early diagenesis.
- The minerals in the surrounding soil and water mix with the inorganic carbonates and phosphates that form the solid framework of the hard tissues, strengthening their structures and replacing their organic components.
- Over the last century, antacids were developed based on the hydroxides and carbonates of the group II and III metals, as well as the bicarbonates of the alkali metals.