A country in the Middle East, between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf; population 79,100,000 (estimated 2015); capital, Tehran; languages, Farsi (Persian) (official), Turkish, Kurdish, Arabic, and others.
Previously known as Persia, the country adopted the name of Iran in 1935. Iran was a monarchy until 1979, when the shah was overthrown in a popular uprising that was headed by Ayatollah Khomeini. Soon after, Iran was established as an Islamic republic. From 1980 until 1988, it was at war with its neighbor Iraq. See also Persia, Iran–Iraq War