A mountainous landlocked country in southern Asia, in the Himalayas (including Mount Everest); population 28,500,000 (estimated 2015); capital, Kathmandu; language, Nepali (official).
Conquered by the Gurkhas in the 18th century, Nepal maintained its independence despite border defeats by the British in the 19th century. It was for long an absolute monarchy, but in 1990 democratic elections were held under a new constitutional monarchy. In 2001 the crown prince killed ten members of the royal family and took his own life. Nepal became a federal democratic republic in 2008