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1The name of two tsars of Russia.
- 1.1Nicholas I (1796–1855), brother of Alexander I, reigned 1825–55. At home he pursued rigidly conservative policies, while his expansionism in the Near East led to the Crimean War.
- 1.2Nicholas II (1868–1918), son of Alexander III, reigned 1894–1917. Forced to abdicate after the Russian Revolution in 1917, he was shot along with his family a year later.
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