(356–323 BC), king of Macedon 336–323; son of Philip II; known as Alexander the Great. He conquered Persia, Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Bactria, and the Punjab; he founded the city of Alexandria in Egypt.
1The name of three kings of Scotland.
- 1.1Alexander I (c.1077–1124), son of Malcolm III, reigned 1107–24.
- 1.2Alexander II (1198–1249), son of William I of Scotland, reigned 1214–49.
- 1.3Alexander III (1241–86), son of Alexander II; reigned 1249–86. He annexed the Hebrides and the Isle of Man in 1266.
1The name of three tsars of Russia.
- 1.1Alexander I (1777–1825), reigned 1801–25. During his reign, Napoleon unsuccessfully invaded Russia 1812.
- 1.2Alexander II (1818–81), son of Nicholas I, reigned 1855–81; known as Alexander the Liberator. His reforms included limited emancipation of the serfs.
- 1.3Alexander III (1845–94), son of Alexander II; reigned 1881–94.