(died c.530 BC), king of Persia 559–530 BC; founder of the Achaemenid dynasty; father of Cambyses; known as Cyrus the Great. He defeated the Median empire in 550 BC and went on to conquer Asia Minor, Babylonia, Syria, Palestine, and most of the Iranian plateau. He is said to have ruled with wisdom and moderation, maintaining good relations with the Jewish people (whom he freed from the Babylonian Captivity) and the Phoenicians.
(died 401 BC), Persian prince; known as Cyrus the Younger. On the death of his father, Darius II, in 405 BC, Cyrus led an army of mercenaries against his elder brother, who had succeeded to the throne as Artaxerxes II. His campaign is recounted by the historian Xenophon.