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READ THESE ARTICLES# Definition of *formalism* in English:

## formalism

### noun

1Excessive adherence to prescribed forms.

*‘academic dryness and formalism’**‘This inclination has developed the furthest in philosophy, political science, and economics, where most practitioners have adopted an otherworldly and self-referential formalism.’**‘I am not going to argue for the virtues of formalism.’**‘Fortunately, I grew out of the spell of legal formalism and its infantile over-simplifications.’**‘The military's formalism and self-regard has often made it the butt of civilian humour.’**‘When judging legal cases, British courts have a long tradition of formalism.’**‘A general consensus exists as to his anxiety to shed a load of cultural baggage - academic formalism, received ideas and above all the debased French tradition of naive musical imitations of nature.’**‘Our ability to make these judgments is critically important, because it opens the door to constitutional formalism - the depoliticization of the process of constitutional adjudication.’**‘The name of Cambridge, and the global reputation of the university, offer a unique opportunity for the architecture school to lead on the world scale as a proponent of an alternative credo to the obscuratism and formalism of other schools.’**‘From the highest to the lowest, all were entangled in a subtle web of mutual espionage, and every element of individuality was crushed under the weight of unbending formalism.’**‘As a quasi-court, the OEB is all legal formalism.’**‘That would be formalism, which is either arid or else, in some kind of complicated, sinister, paranoid way, connected to the oppressive operations of a mysterious power group.’**‘Shanghai is making government administration more transparent to its citizens, while firmly doing away with formalism and bureaucratism.’**‘The other influence is the realization that formalism is ‘a dead-end street.’’**‘Having conquered New Zealand years ago the army is beginning to lose its elan and ferocity and is drifting into empty formalism and bureaucratisation.’**‘Powell's formalism is not only distended and sonic, but also the product of subtly tailored typography and syntax.’**‘Will high culture drive into the cul-de-sac of formalism, preferring museality to the contaminations of experience?’**‘Now I love formalism, if it reaches sensible results, and if it rests on formal distinctions that make sense.’**‘Financial services in Bulgaria are still branded by formalism, bureaucracy and lack of interest, analysts said.’**‘Here, surely, is a prime example of how formalism makes economists impervious to the evidence.’**‘The transactional interpretation would then have to be considered in the context of such a revised formalism to decide if a conflict exists.’*

**conventionality**, traditionalism, orthodoxy, fitting in, following the crowd, running with the pack, swimming with the stream- 1.1The use of forms of worship without regard to inner significance.
*‘After decades of dead formalism in denominational churches, the charismatic movement seemed to bring great spiritual freedom.’**‘He shared a nineteenth-century German dislike for religious formalism and ceremony.’**‘Evangelicity, in other words, guards against ecclesial formalism by breaching the walls of institutional isolationism.’**‘The Bishop is not just being a slave to formalism.’**‘Juridical formalism is but a substitute for religious formalism.’*

- 1.2The basing of ethics on the form of the moral law without regard to intention or consequences.
*‘Analytic ethics has been very fairly impoverished given the postivist legacy of emotivism, the formalism of Kantian ethics and the technicalism of utilitarianism.’**‘They explicitly disavow the classical philosophies of formalism, logicism, Platonism, intuitionism, and social constructivism.’**‘Gadamer uses Kant's aesthetic formalism to illustrate this point.’**‘Waismann criticized both logicism and formalism.’**‘But at least it's better than formalism, logicism, intuitionism, constructivism or Platonism.’**‘When it comes to the philosophical issue of the nature of truth, most mathematicians fall into one of two camps called formalism and Platonism.’**‘Throughout his career, Sturr integrated pristine formalism with a tender humanism.’**‘Despite the substantial contributions he had made to topology by this time, Brouwer chose to give his inaugural professorial lecture on intuitionism and formalism.’**‘For students steeped in late classical formalism, myself included, Lachmann's message of radical subjectivism was strange stuff indeed.’**‘But I was interested in the degree to which his vision was essentially pragmatist, or to be more specific, formalism justified by pragmatism.’**‘Formalists claim that legal realism is not true to the rule of law; realists respond that despite what formalists say, formalism isn't how the law really works.’*

- 1.3Concern or excessive concern with form and technique rather than content in artistic creation.
*‘Judd's thesis augured the inevitable evolution of Modern art into pure formalism and object-ness.’**‘In this way, neoclassicism's insistent formalism did little to close the gap between style and meaning.’**‘A slew of sculptors have emerged in Los Angeles in the last few years, but most seem stuck in either constrictive formalism or murky surrealism.’**‘Here, he used the intimacy of video to infiltrate the intense, distancing formalism of modernist dwellings and let us peer into some fanciful dramas unfolding within them.’**‘In this fertile period he has embraced aspects of classicism, formalism, surrealism and most obviously, postmodernism.’**‘In its hostility towards formalism, Performance art related to other contemporary movements, including Conceptual art and Environmental art.’**‘His music combined dazzling bursts of musical light with Gallic elegance and the rigorous formalism of a classicist.’**‘This latest show, however, confirms that his art is still resolutely factual and transparent, and his commitment to a kind of painterly formalism undiminished.’**‘The best work on the show fluctuates between two greatly differing styles, one a kind of elemental formalism, the other a figurative, narrative post-modernism.’**‘Artists guilty or suspected of formalism were persecuted and encouraged to make public recantations for their offences.’**‘They used their bodies to challenge modernist formalism, traditional relationships between artist and medium, and the boundaries between artist, spectator, and mass culture.’**‘Seeing as how pop music thrives on various levels of artifice, questions of authenticity aren't typically worth the effort, but it's hard not to hear more formalism than feeling in these rustic songs.’**‘Coercive, manipulative attempts to recur to the symbolic (to enlist the unconscious mind) end in dead formalism, like bad adolescent prose and most modern poetry.’**‘Though the Hives open themselves up to style-over-substance gripes, there is real feeling amidst their artifice and formalism.’**‘The rival personae can contradict each other, so that the poetry is pulled one way and the other, between the extremes of sterile formalism and sloganeering.’**‘Geczy's basic argument is that craft without an idea is simple formalism, a naïve tendency that can lead to all sorts of dark consequences.’**‘Desolation has become global and the photographer's world is decidedly anchored in formalism.’**‘If we could just appreciate the rightness of formalism over ‘ideas’ then we'd be on the right track.’**‘The brothers are often accused of empty formalism, offering up homages to film genres but lacking soul.’**‘This essay praised Propp's work, but pointed out that the problem with formalism was its policy of ignoring thematic content.’*

- 1.4(in the theater) a symbolic and stylized manner of production.
- 1.5The treatment of mathematics as a manipulation of meaningless symbols.
*‘The other basic version of formalism likens the practice of mathematics to a game played with linguistic characters.’**‘He has also made this formalism more useful for practical calculations.’**‘Brouwer emphasizes, as he had done in his dissertation, that formalism presupposes contentual mathematics at the metalevel.’**‘He approaches the subject with a physics-first attitude that allows the student to get to the fun parts without spending months learning formalism.’*

**dogmatism**, purism, literalism, formalism

2A description of something in formal mathematical or logical terms.

*‘there is a formalism which expresses the idea of superposition’**‘Yet the development of the general theory of relativity introduced Einstein to the power of abstract mathematical formalisms, notably that of tensor calculus.’**‘The Maximum Likelihood section provides the details of the mathematical formalisms and computations.’**‘Any attempt to disprove the theory of evolution using thermodynamics will require proper formalisms.’**‘This article highlights the mathematical foundations of formalisms proposed to mimic human qualitative reasoning along with potential and limitations.’**‘In the following subsections, we present the mathematical structures and focus on the mathematical soundness of the formalisms.’**‘Lachmann asked modern Austrians to rebel against the equilibrium models and logical formalisms of contemporary economic reasoning.’**‘These logical formalisms are applied and tested in applications in other sciences, in everyday phenomena or in logic and mathematics themselves.’**‘These formalisms do not adequately describe cases where the enzyme or substrate are membrane bound.’**‘Your proposal, therefore, has to give us a finite theory which combines these two formalisms.’**‘But, in the past, technology ended up generating objects - while science ended up generating rules and embedding them or expressing them in formalisms.’**‘Qualitative modeling provides formalisms for expressing intuitive, causal models and the reasoning techniques needed to generate predictions and explanations from them for helping students see the consequences of their ideas.’**‘Let us illustrate how a control strategy can be described qualitatively, using typical formalisms in qualitative physics.’**‘Some subjectivity exists in the choice between models having few parameters, which favour the accuracy of their estimation, and more complex formalisms that are generally required to express ideas on biological processes.’**‘A synergy between the development of theoretical formalisms, modeling and experimental work is fundamental to addressing the nanoelectronic challenges.’**‘The mathematics of self-reference involves creating formalisms to reflect the strange situation in which something produces A, which produces B, which produces A.’**‘However, the formalisms that I'd learned in 1968 were out of date, and I understood only vaguely what the new ideas were and how they had been motivated.’**‘It argues that qualitative formalisms and reasoning engines provide the means necessary to support learners in developing such conceptual models.’**‘The most simple formalisms link crop growth to fertilization regime or to time, expressed in days or in time units (cumulative degree-days) from sowing.’**‘Pi-calculus and related formalisms are complex, but business people couldn't care less about formalisms.’**‘A wide range of plant-modeling formalisms is possible, depending on the category of system being controlled.’*

**Pronunciation**

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