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1A gold coin issued in France between 1640 and 1793.
- ‘He did borrow it, getting a thousand from one man, five hundred from another, five louis here, three louis there.’
- ‘When the inventory of the works of art in the Pasquier collection was produced, Colin and Remy each received a louis d' or - the equivalent of twenty-four livres - for their two sessions.’
- ‘He flicked a louis d' or into the pot with confident fingers’
- ‘The curtains were said to have cost 5000 louis, or guineas.’
- ‘Your father already offered me five thousand louis.’
- 1.1another term for napoleon (sense 1)
1The name of eighteen kings of France.
- 1.1Louis I (778–840), son of Charlemagne, king of the West Franks and Holy Roman Emperor 814–40.
- 1.2Louis II (846–79), reigned 877–9.
- 1.3Louis III (863–82), son of Louis II, reigned 879–82.
- 1.4Louis IV (921–54), reigned 936–54.
- 1.5Louis V (967–87), reigned 979–87.
- 1.6Louis VI (1081–1137), reigned 1108–37.
- 1.7Louis VII (1120–80), reigned 1137–80.
- 1.8Louis VIII (1187–1226), reigned 1223–6.
- 1.9Louis IX (1214–70), son of Louis VIII, reigned 1226–70; canonized as St Louis. He conducted two unsuccessful crusades, dying of plague in Tunis during the second. Feast day, 25 August.
- 1.10Louis X (1289–1316), reigned 1314–16.
- 1.11Louis XI (1423–83), son of Charles VII, reigned 1461–83. He continued his father's work in laying the foundations of a united France ruled by an absolute monarchy.
- 1.12Louis XII (1462–1515), reigned 1498–1515.
- 1.13Louis XIII (1601–43), son of Henry IV of France, reigned 1610–43. During his minority the country was ruled by his mother Marie de Médicis. From 1624 he was heavily influenced in policy-making by his chief minister Cardinal Richelieu.
- 1.14Louis XIV (1638–1715), son of Louis XIII, reigned 1643–1715; known as the Sun King. His reign represented the high point of the Bourbon dynasty and of French power in Europe, and in this period French art and literature flourished. His almost constant wars of expansion united Europe against him, however, and gravely weakened France's financial position.
- 1.15Louis XV (1710–74), great-grandson and successor of Louis XIV, reigned 1715–74. He led France into the Seven Years War (1756–63).
- 1.16Louis XVI (1754–93), grandson and successor of Louis XV, reigned 1774–92. His minor concessions and reforms in the face of the emerging French Revolution proved disastrous. As the Revolution became more extreme, he was executed with his wife, Marie Antoinette, and the monarchy was abolished.
- 1.17Louis XVII (1785–95), son of Louis XVI, titular king who died in prison during the Revolution.
- 1.18Louis XVIII (1755–1824), brother of Louis XVI, reigned 1814–24. After his nephew Louis XVII's death he became titular king in exile until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, when he returned to Paris on the summons of Talleyrand and was officially restored to the throne.
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