Definition of pneuma in English:



  • (in Stoic thought) the vital spirit, soul, or creative force of a person.

    ‘In Stoic philosophy, the pneuma penetrates all things, holding things together.’
    • ‘Indeed, most cultures have believed in the existence of a vital force: the Chinese call it chi; the Hindus know it as prana; the ancient Greeks used to call it pneuma or psyche, while the Romans talked about three kinds of spirits.’
    • ‘Ruah, in Hebrew, and pneuma, in Greek, are often translated ‘spirit’ but both literally mean ‘breath.’’
    soul, spirit, self, inner self, innermost self, ego, inner ego, true being, essential nature, life force, vital force, inner man, inner woman, persona, identity, personality, individuality, make-up, subconscious, mind, intellect



/ˈn(y)o͞omə/ /ˈn(j)umə/


Greek, literally ‘that which is breathed or blown’.