Definition of polysome in English:


Pronunciation /ˈpälēˌsōm/ /ˈpɑliˌsoʊm/


  • A cluster of ribosomes held together by a strand of messenger RNA that each ribosome is translating.

    ‘This value was lower than the average amount of mRNA detected in all polysomes (two ribosomes per mRNA) in leaves of arabidopsis and rapidly dividing yeast cells.’
    • ‘The peaks of free 40S and 60S subunits, 80S ribosomes (free couples and monosomes), and polysomes are indicated.’
    • ‘Anoxia causes polysomes, translating the aerobic proteins, to dissociate, and anaerobic mRNAs are translated from polysomes with a much lower average size.’
    • ‘This loss of protein synthetic capacity is manifested in a loss of polysomes that result from the run-off of ribosomes from mRNAs coupled with a failure in the initiation machinery.’
    • ‘The rest are nuclear-encoded and are synthesized as precursor proteins on free cytosolic polysomes.’